This document describes the integration process of the ThreatSTOP DNS Defense with a BIND 9 DNS server running on RHEL and CentOS.


A birds-eye view of the setup procedure is:

  • Open a ThreatSTOP account if you have not already done so.
  • Using the Portal, configure a new device - Manufacturer: DNS Server and Model: BIND 9.8+ (Red Hat)
  • Installing BIND on Red Hat Linux if you don’t have a running instance already
  • Configure BIND itself to act as a slave server for the zone that contains your policy.
  • Configure BIND Log upload
  • Configure the client machines to be protected to use the ThreatSTOP DNS Firewall for address resolution.


Supported Systems

  • CentOS 7.x
  • RHEL 7.x

Supported BIND Servers

  • BIND 9.8.2+
  • BIND 9.9.x
  • BIND 9.10.x
  • BIND 9.11.x
  • BIND 9.12.x

Device Settings

You will need the following settings to complete the installation. You can retrieve the RPZ Zone name, TSIG Key name, TSIG Key secret and Device ID via the settings of the device in the Admin Portal.

Setting Value
DNS Server IP Address
Device ID Retrieved from device settings
RPZ Zone Name Retrieved from device settings
TSIG Key Name Retrieved from device settings
TSIG Key Secret Retrieved from device settings



The ThreatSTOP BIND-based DNS Firewall on RedHat Linux requires a system that meets at least these specifications.

You will need root access on the Linux system.


To retrieve its configuration and policy, and to upload log data, the machine needs the following connectivity:

  • DNS over TCP
    • IP Range:
    • Outbound TCP port 53
  • DNS over UDP (optional, but recommended for DNS notifications)
    • IP Range:
    • Inbound UDP port 53
    • Hostname:
    • IP range:
    • Outbound TCP port 443

Setup instructions

The following steps will walk you through the configuration of BIND to enable the ThreatSTOP DNS Firewall.

ThreatSTOP Portal setup

  • If you want to use a custom DNS Firewall policy, please read DNS Firewall Policies
  • Create a new Device Entry: Click on Devices and then on Add Device.
    • Select DNS Defense
    • The Manufacturer is: DNS Server
    • The Model is: BIND 9.8+ (Red Hat)
  • Select the DNS Firewall policy - either a pre-defined policy or a custom policy
  • Note: It can take up to 30 minutes for a new device to become available after it is created in the Portal. Once the device is available, its IP address will be recognized in the output of the following command:
$ curl
Your IP address: <ip address>
Address is in the list of authorized hosts

Configuring BIND

The following procedure will extend a default installation of BIND (BIND 9.8.2 and greater) to integrate with ThreatSTOP’s DNS Defense. We strongly recommend using the latest versions of BIND 9 and keeping it up-to-date with the latest security fixes.

If you don’t already have an instance of BIND, please see Installing BIND on Red Hat

You will need root access - via sudo or su. The instructions below will use sudo but you can run them without sudo if you are logged in as root.

Edit the BIND configuration files

You will need the following settings to configure BIND:

Setting Value
DNS Server IP Address
RPZ Zone Name Retrieved from device settings
TSIG Key Name Retrieved from device settings
TSIG Key Secret Retrieved from device settings
  • Edit /etc/named.conf and add the following in the options block:
    include "/etc/threatstop.options.conf";
  • For example:
    options {
      directory "/var/named";
      // other options - either standard or your customized configuration
      include "/etc/threatstop.options.conf";
  • Create /etc/threatstop.options.conf and add a response-policy setting with the ThreatSTOP Zone Name:
response-policy {
    zone " [Zone name retrieved from device settings] ";
  • Edit /etc/named.conf and add the following include at the end of the file:
    include "/etc/threatstop.rpz.conf";
  • Create /etc/threatstop.rpz.conf with the following content
key  [TSIG Key name retrieved from device settings]  {
    algorithm hmac-md5;
    secret " [TSIG Key secret retrieved from device settings] ";
server {
    keys {  [TSIG Key name retrieved from device settings]  ; };
zone " [Zone name retrieved from device settings] " {
    type slave;
    masters {; };
    file "slaves/ [Zone name retrieved from device settings] ";
  • Add the following line to the logging section, typically in /etc/named.conf
    include "/etc/threatstop.logging.conf";
  • If you don’t have a logging section, add one to /etc/named.conf
    logging {
      include "/etc/threatstop.logging.conf";
  • Create /etc/threatstop.logging.conf with the following content
channel syslog_local0 {
    syslog local0;
    severity info;
    print-time yes;
    print-category yes;
    print-severity yes;

category rpz { syslog_local0; };
  • Create the log directory
sudo mkdir /var/log/named
sudo chmod 0700 /var/log/named
  • Create rsyslog bind configuration file /etc/rsyslog.d/99-bind-rpz.conf
# Log named generated RPZ log messages to file
if $programname == 'named' and $syslogfacility-text == 'local0' and $msg contains 'rpz' then /var/log/named/rpz.log
  • Restart Bind and your initial policy will be downloaded within a couple of minutes in /var/cache/slaves. Check BIND’s log in /var/log/messages if not.
sudo service named restart
sudo service rsyslog restart
  • Test that your configuration is working as expected:
    dig @  should return NXDOMAIN
    ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NXDOMAIN, id: 5611
    ;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 0, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 2
  • Check that a log entry was added to /var/log/named/rpz.log

BIND views

If your BIND instance is configured to use views, the RPZ zone must be included in every view. Instead of including /etc/bind/threatstop.rpz.conf in named.conf, include it in every view statement.

Configuring log upload

After configuring BIND to use ThreatSTOP’s Policy Zone, you can configure the system to send the RPZ logs to ThreatSTOP to report on the blocked queries.

You will need your device ID to configure log upload.

Setting Value
Device ID Retrieved from device settings


If SELinux is running in enforcing mode (check /etc/selinux/config), you will need to add a permission to allow logrotate to make TCP connections.

  • In your home directory, create a file named threatstop.te with the following contents:
module threatstop 1.0;

require {
	type http_port_t;
	type logrotate_t;
	class tcp_socket name_connect;

#============= logrotate_t ==============

#!!!! This avc can be allowed using the boolean 'nis_enabled'
allow logrotate_t http_port_t:tcp_socket name_connect;
  • Run the following commands to create and load the policy module
checkmodule -M -m -o threatstop.mod threatstop.te
semodule_package -o threatstop.pp -m threatstop.mod
semodule -i threatstop.pp

Note: to remove the policy, run this command: semodule -r threatstop

  • Create a logrotate configuration for threatstop
    sudo vi /etc/logrotate.d/threatstop
  • Copy and paste the example below to /etc/logrotate.d/threatstop
    rotate 7
    size 100k
    create 0644 root root
    /usr/sbin/service rsyslog restart > /dev/null
    /usr/bin/curl -v -F "upfile=@$1.1" -F "upfile_size=`/usr/bin/stat -c %s $1.1`" -F "md5_client=`/usr/bin/md5sum $1.1|/usr/bin/cut -d' ' -f 1`" -F "fw_tdid=[Device ID retrieved from device settings]"
  • Check the logrotate configuration. The following command should show a successful file upload (HTTP/1.1 200 OK)
    sudo /sbin/logrotate -f /etc/logrotate.d/threatstop
  • Finally, add the log rotation to cron. Create and edit /etc/cron.d/threatstop and add the following entry. This uploads logs every 15 minutes but you can send adjust the crontab frequency to your preference
    */15 * * * *      root /sbin/logrotate -f /etc/logrotate.d/threatstop

Proxy support

If your network requires the use of an HTTP proxy, add the proxy option to the curl command in the logrotate config file: –proxy server:port. The proxy must be an HTTP proxy with support for HTTPS (CONNECT protocol).

Additional Information