This document describes the integration process of the ThreatSTOP IP Defense with Vyatta Devices in Bridge mode

Overview

We have written a script to set up Vyatta devices with firewall rules to get your block lists, use the results to update the ipsets that are created, and to upload your firewall logs to us.

You can download the script here, but you will find it is easier to cut and paste the wget command in Setup below.

Prerequisites

A management station with a web browser that can read this page and an ssh client that can access the Vyatta device. Set up your Vyatta device with an external Ethernet port and IP address, as well as a management IP address that can be accessed from your management station.

The Vyatta device should have ssh enabled on it. This can be setup by entering the following in the console:

configure
set service ssh
commit
exit

Confirm that the management’s ssh client can connect to the Vyatta device and log in to it; using that login session confirm that the Vyatta device can also access and download files from the Internet. In particular check that your Vyatta device can connect to ThreatSTOP’s FTP service by entering this command:

ping ftp.threatstop.com

Note: If this is a re-installation you may wish to either rename the folder ts-vyatta something else or restore the system to its original state before running the re-installation.

Setup

For a physical install, a Vyatta appliance or a PC with two or three network interface cards (NICs) and a Vyatta OS CD is required. For testing, either a subscription edition or the Vyatta Core is acceptable – for longer term support a subscription version is required. Vyatta recommends 1 GB of memory, and for testing purposes this is plenty; in deployment, 512 MB or less can be used unless you are planning on using the device with many features enabled. From a hard drive standpoint a 4 GB hard disk is more than enough for testing and evaluation as Vyatta only requires about 1-2 GB of space.

For a virtual install either a VM image or a blank VM and the ISO of the Vyatta CD is required. The same memory and disk requirements given for the physical install apply. If you are not using a Vyatta image then you must enable PAE support on the CPU otherwise Vyatta will not boot.

The device may be set up using either two or three NICs and may be positioned either inside or outside the existing network firewall/router as shown in the three diagrams to the right.

Caution: Without additional firewall rules to block external SSH access it is not recommended to deploy the two NIC configuration outside the firewall.

  • 3 NIC Vyatta configuration outside the firewall
  • 3 NIC Vyatta configuration inside the firewall
  • 2 NIC Vyatta configuration inside the firewall

It is preferable to install the Vyatta box behind the firewall/router if it is doing NAT to track down bots on your network. If, however, your firewall has multiple internal interfaces e.g. one for the intranet and another for DMZ servers, etc. then you should place the Vyatta box outside the firewall. In this case you will have trouble identifying the IP addresses of any bots since they will be NATted by the firewall.

In addition to the machine (or VM) that will be running Vyatta, a management station is required. This machine should have an SSH client installed (Linux/Mac OS machines have this by default for Windows you should install a client such as PuTTY (http://www.putty.org/) or Mindterm (http://www.appgate.com/index/products/mindterm/)) and access to the Internet and a web browser.

Installation of Vyatta OS onto Hard Disk

Note: Users of the Vyatta VM image or with a Vyatta Hardware Appliance should skip this section.

  • Insert the CD into the drive (add the ISO if virtual) and boot/reboot the device. You should see a Vyatta logo and the option to press F1 for help or Enter to boot.
  • Press ENTER.
  • After a short while booting up you will see a login prompt. Login as user vyatta password vyatta (both in all lowercase).
  • Once you are logged in enter the command below and follow the instructions. Caution: If you follow the recommended defaults you will totally reformat the hard disk. If you wish to not destroy all data then you should not select auto from the partition choice. Either have the partitions set up in advance (Skip) or choose Parted.
vyatta@vyatta:~$ install-system
  • Near the end of the process you will be asked for a password for the Vyatta account, that is not the same as the default. Once the install has finished you can eject the CD and reset the machine.

The machine will now boot Vyatta from the hard disk. When presented with the login prompt you should log in as vyatta using the password you defined during the install process.

VM Image users

Boot the VM and then when you get to a login prompt login as user vyatta password vyatta.

Hardware Appliance users

Follow the basic instructions that came with your appliance to unpack, connect, and attach a management station to your Appliance. When you get to a login prompt login as user vyatta password vyatta (both completely in lowercase). Setup is divided in to two sections, the first is done from the console of the Vyatta device and the second done while SSHing in. It is possible to do all of the work from the console but the use of SSH allows you to cut and paste lines directly from this document, which is generally quicker and less likely to lead to errors.

Console Setup Commands

Having logged in to the console you will need to set up the Ethernet interfaces, enable SSH and set the default nameserver and gateway. As noted above, you may optionally set up other services and options either from the console or via SSH. Likewise you can set the gateway and nameserver via SSH if the management station is on the same IP subnet as the Vyatta. To configure anything on the Vyatta device it is necessary to enter configuration mode by typing configure at the console:

vyatta@vyatta:~$ configure
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta#

First enable ssh:

vyatta@vyatta# set service ssh
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta#

Then set up the router group using Ethernet interfaces eth0 and eth1:

vyatta@vyatta# set interfaces ethernet eth1 router-group router br0
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta# set interfaces ethernet eth0 router-group router br0
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta# set interfaces router br0
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta#

If you have three NICs you should set up the ip address of the management interface on eth2:

vyatta@vyatta# set interfaces ethernet eth2 address 192.0.2.12/24
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta#

If you have two NICs you should set up the ip address of the router group:

vyatta@vyatta# set interfaces router br0 address 192.0.2.12/24
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta#

Now set up the default gateway and name server. These should be your INTERNAL default gateway and nameservers, the same as for any computer on the same network. If you don’t have your own nameservers, you can use your ISPs, or the primary ThreatSTOP nameserver:

vyatta@vyatta:~$ configure
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta# set system gateway-address 192.0.2.1
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta# set system name-server 192.0.2.5
[edit]

Finally commit your changes, save and exit.

vyatta@vyatta# commit
[ interfaces ethernet eth1 to router-group ]
Adding interface eth1 to router br0.
[ interfaces ethernet eth1 to router-group ]
Adding interface eth0 to router br0.
Restarting OpenBSD Secure Shell server: sshd.
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta# save
Saving configuration to '/opt/vyatta/etc/config/config.boot'...
Done
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta# exit
exit
vyatta@vyatta:~$

At this point the Vyatta device is correctly set up for basic SSH access.

vyatta@vyatta# set interfaces ethernet eth2 address 192.0.2.12/24
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta#

SSH from management console

Using your ssh tool connect to the Vyatta as user vyatta

MindTerm home: C:\Users\<username>\Application Data\MindTerm\
SSH Server/Alias: 192.0.2.12
No settings file for 192.0.2.12 found.
(^C = cancel, ^D or empty = don't save)
Save as alias : 192.0.2.12
Current settings file: 'C:\Users\<username>\Application Data\MindTerm\192.0.2.12.mtp'
Connected to server running SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_5.1p1 Debian-5
Server's hostkey (ssh-rsa) fingerprint:
openssh md5: 00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00:00
bubblebabble: xipag-vomal-lebuk-zuvyb-nimyl-dipek-modid-sofol-vebus-segig-guxox
Host key not found in 'C:\Users\<username>\Application
Data\MindTerm\hostkeys\key_22_192.0.2.12.pub'
192.0.2.12 login: vyatta
vyatta@192.0.2.12's password: ******
Linux vyatta 2.6.32-1-586-vyatta-virt #1 SMP Mon Aug 2 23:28:02 PDT 2010 i686
Welcome to Vyatta.
This system is open-source software. The exact distribution terms for
each module comprising the full system are described in the individual
files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.
vyatta@vyatta:~$

Now add NAT so that computers inside can access external resources and save.

vyatta@vyatta# set service nat rule 10 type masquerade
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta# set service nat rule 10 outbound-interface eth0
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta# set service nat rule 10 source address 192.0.2.0/24
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta# set service nat rule 11 type masquerade
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta# set service nat rule 11 source address 192.0.2.0/24
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta# set service nat rule 11 outbound-interface eth0
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta# commit
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta# save
Saving configuration to '/opt/vyatta/etc/config/config.boot'...
Done
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta# exit
exit
vyatta@vyatta:~$

If you wish to you may configure the Vyatta further to add additional features. If you intend to add custom firewall rules it is strongly recommended that this be done after you have enabled ThreatSTOP on the device. Verify that you can see the world by typing:

vyatta@vyatta:~$ ping ftp.threatstop.com
PING www.threatstop.com (64.87.26.148) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from www.threatstop.com (64.87.26.148): icmp_seq=1 ttl=43 time=234 ms
64 bytes from www.threatstop.com (64.87.26.148): icmp_seq=2 ttl=43 time=232 ms
64 bytes from www.threatstop.com (64.87.26.148): icmp_seq=3 ttl=43 time=233 ms
64 bytes from www.threatstop.com (64.87.26.148): icmp_seq=4 ttl=47 time=233 ms
^C
--- www.threatstop.com ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3008ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 232.764/233.798/234.675/0.680 ms

Finally verify that the Vyatta device is in our database.

vyatta@vyatta# wget -qO - http://www.threatstop.com/cgi-bin/validip.pl
Your IP address: 192.0.2.0
Address is in the list of authorized hosts

If the address is NOT in the database then the response will be

vyatta@vyatta# wget -qO - http://www.threatstop.com/cgi-bin/validip.pl
Your IP address: 192.0.2.0
Address is not in the list of authorized hosts
Host list updated every 15 minutes and last updated at
Wed Oct 27 11:15:01 2010 GMT. It is now Wed Oct 27 11:22:16 2010

If the address reported is the one you entered for the device when you added it at https://threatstop.com then you should wait for about 15 minutes and then try again. If the address remains invalid then contact ThreatSTOP tech support to find out why.

If the address reported is not the address you entered for the device at the ThreatSTOP website then you should correct that entry and wait about half an hour before retrying.

Once the address is confirmed as being in the ThreatSTOP database, you are ready to set the device up with ThreatSTOP. If you did not do the initial device addition on the ThreatSTOP website from this computer (or you closed the browser) then you should log in to your ThreatSTOP account at https://threatstop.com, select Manage Devices and then click on Rules for the device you added.

Look down the webpage until you see a section like: As the instructions say, it is a good idea to first save a copy of the current working configuration.

vyatta@vyatta:~$ configure
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta# save prethreatstop
Saving configuration to '/opt/vyatta/etc/config/prethreatstop'...
Done
[edit]
vyatta@vyatta# exit
exit
vyatta@vyatta:~$

ThreatSTOP Setup

  • Copy and paste the following line into the Vyatta ssh session:
wget -O - ftp://ftp.threatstop.com/pub/ts-vyatta.tar.gz | tar xzv ; ts-vyatta/setup.pl --type b --blocklist=<block list name>.<ThreatSTOP account ID>.threatstop.local --allowlist=<allow list name>.<ThreatSTOP account ID>.threatstop.local

The device should download and unpack the ThreatSTOP scripts and then run the setup script which will display the following (if you have a sudo password enabled on your Vyatta device then you will need to enter it when prompted).

ThreatSTOP Vyatta setup script 1.02 If you have not specified setup options on the command line then 
you will be given the chance to specify them now. First time users running this by pasting in the 
command from the ThreatSTOP website should probably not change anything. On subsequent runs probably 
the only things to change will be the block and allow list ids. For each option the default value is 
specified in [], just press the ENTER key to accept it.

Note for the paranoid. The proposed changes to the Vyatta config, the changes to /etc/rc.local, 
/etc/logrotate.d/messages and the new crontab are created in the installation directory. If you 
choose not to allow this script to apply the changes automatically then you can review them and then 
apply them manually.

You will then be asked a number of questions and normally you should accept the default values. The critical questions are the third one asking about the bridge id and the subsequent ones concerning firewall rule names and numbers. If the bridge id is not br0 then you must correct this. Likewise if you have existing firewall rules defined for the “in” and “local” directions of the bridge you must enter their names and an appropriate rule number since otherwise those rules will no longer be applied to traffic on that interface. If you do have existing rules it is generally recommended that the ThreatSTOP rules are performed first and thus that they have the lowest numbers. The setup script creates the eight ThreatSTOP rules with consecutive numbers. Thus, if your existing rules start at 10, you should specify that the script insert the rules starting at either 1 or 2.

ThreatSTOP installation directory [/home/vyatta/ts-vyatta/]

Install type bridged - bridge id [br0]

ThreatSTOP installation directory [/home/vyatta/ts-vyatta/]

ThreatSTOP ipset prefix [TS]

Install type bridged - bridge id [br0]

Firewall name for interface br0 direction in: [TSbridgeinrule]

Insert ThreatSTOP rules beginning at number? [10]

Add default accept? (strongly recommended if you do not have other
rules for this firewall name, not otherwise)[y]

Firewall name for interface br0 direction local: [TSbridgelocalrule]

Insert ThreatSTOP rules beginning at number? [10]

Add default accept? (strongly recommended if you do not have other
rules for this firewall name, not otherwise)[y]

ThreatSTOP block list:<block list name>.<ThreatSTOP account ID>.threatstop.local

ThreatSTOP allow list:<allow list name>.<ThreatSTOP account ID>.threatstop.local

dig command location [/home/vyatta/ts-vyatta/dig]

Logfile to upload [/var/log/messages]

URL for submitting logs [https://threatstop.com/cgi-bin/logupload.pl]

Once these questions have been answered the script will create the install directory and copy files if required, test whether the firewall can download the block list from ThreatSTOP’s DNS server and create the Vyatta firewall rules (but not apply them) and the modifications of the various files that are needed.

Initial set up complete, testing
/home/vyatta/ts-vyatta/dig +tcp -t ptr @192.124.129.42<block list name>.<ThreatSTOP account ID>.threatstop.local
Test successful
Creating bridging rules to configure.bridge.sh
Creating local copy of logrotate.d/messages file
Creating crontab file
Creating local copy of rc.local file

Now you are asked whether you wish to accept the changes. If you have a complex/non-standard configuration you may wish to say N at this point and examine the files that have been created.

Apply changes: /home/vyatta/ts-vyatta/configure.bridge.sh, 
/etc/logroate.d/messages, /etc/rc.local, crontab (Y/N)[Y]

Merging /home/vyatta/ts-vyatta/configure.bridge.sh

Removing and clearing crontab for root
no crontab for root
no crontab for root
# Update the ThreatSTOP lists. Every 2 hours, 0 minutes after the hour
# (00:15, 02:15, 04:15, etc.)
0 */2 * * * /home/vyatta/ts-vyatta/ipsetget.pl
# Force a logrotate if the log is > 100k. Check every 5 minutes after 
the hour
5 * * * * perl -e'exec q(logroate -f /etc/logrotate.d/messages) if 
(stat q(/var/log/messages))[7]>100000;' 

Copying modified /etc/logrotate.d/messages
`/home/vyatta/ts-vyatta/logrotated.messages' -> 
`/etc/logrotate.d/messages'
Copying modified /etc/rc.local
`/home/vyatta/ts-vyatta/rc.local' -> `/etc/rc.local'

Finally you have the choice to run the script to get the block list data for the first time:

Run script for first time? (Y/N) [Y]

After some seconds (depending on the blocklist size and the connectivity to our DNS servers this may take up to a minute) you should see a report of a successful first run when the script completes. Assuming this last step reports success, you have installed ThreatSTOP on your Vyatta routing device.

You should verify that none of the changes have broken basic connectivity and, if there are no problems, you should save the configuration so that it is used whenever the device reboots. This can be done by entering in the console:

configure
save threatstopbridge
save
exit

To view the contents of the block and allow lists, you will need to run the “ipset” command: sudo ipset -L

Updating Vyatta

New versions of the ThreatSTOP application may have significant changes and, as such, will require a different upgrade procedure. To resolve this:

  • Uninstall the older version of ThreaSTOP by running the following commands from the home directory:
ts-vyatta/revert.sh
rm -rf ts-vyatta

This will remove the previous configurations.

  • Once this is completed paste the following line into the Vyatta ssh session:
wget -O - ftp://ftp.threatstop.com/pub/ts-vyatta.tar.gz | tar xzv ; sudo ts-vyatta/setup.pl --type r --blocklist=<block list name>.<ThreatSTOP account ID>.threatstop.local --allowlist=<allow list name>.<ThreatSTOP account ID>.threatstop.local

Updating Vyatta OS

When updating Vyatta by using the image upgrade procedure, the scripts will be moved to a different location on the filesystem. This results in the block list not being updated and logs not uploading. In order to get ThreatSTOP working again, you will need to re-run the setup procedure, but this time it is run in update mode. The configuration will not be modified, but the cronjobs that update the block list and uploads the log are recreated.

To perform the update copy and paste the following line into the Vyatta ssh session:

wget -O - ftp://ftp.threatstop.com/pub/ts-vyatta.tar.gz | tar xzv ; sudo ts-vyatta/setup.pl --type u --blocklist=<block list name>.<ThreatSTOP account ID>.threatstop.local --allowlist=<allow list name>.<ThreatSTOP account ID>.threatstop.local

Restore to previous state

If you have run setup and applied the changes and wish to return to the pre-threatstop configuration then you should perform the following command (assuming that you installed to /home/vyatta/ts-vyatta). From a console enter:

ts-vyatta/revert.sh

Optionally you may also wish to remove the ts-vyatta directory (rm -r ts-vyatta/).

This has now restored all the files changed. To restore the configuration you should do the following:

load prethreatstop
save
exit

It is possible that you may need to load prethreatstop more than once to handle commit errors. Once you have managed to load the old configuration without error you should reboot the Vyatta device to be sure that it runs with no traces of ThreatSTOP changes in the system.